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Stamm der Hamer. Die Frauen tragen Narben auf dem Rücken. Während des großen Festes des Rindersprunges ( Bullfighting ) lassen sie sich peitschen. Sie zeigen dadurch Stärke und wollen beweisen, dass sie auch in schlechten Zeiten immer an der Seite ihrer Familie stehen werden.  Die frischen Narben wurden früher Wunden werden extra verunreinigt, um sie auch nach vielen Jahren noch zeigen zu können. Heute wird Salbe aufgetragen.  dances of Ethiopia  Tänze aus  Äthiopen unter ethiotube.net

Hamerpeople Hamerpeople
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Frauen lassen sich mit einer Peitsche oder Rute  schlagen. Die  Frauen werden oft von ihren Ehemännern geschlagen und zeigen stolz ihre Narben, wie sie gelernt haben und glauben, dass dies ihre Aufgabe ist und eine gewisse Loyalität zu ihrem Stamm, ihren Ehemann und ihre Gemeinschaft.

Author: Lydall, Jean

Entry: Hamar cluster

Description: language of the Hamar, Banna, Bashada

Length: D

Field: Ling

Deadline: September 30, 2000

Hamar cluster (incl. Hamar, Banna, Bashada and Kara)

People of √ Hamar, √ Banna and √ Bashada speak one language (here referred to as

Hamar) with a few lexical differences. Self name respectively: hämar, bäna and bäshäda

äpo (word/mouth/language). The √ Kara speak a dialect of Hamar which is an √ Omotic

language belonging to the Aroid group with √ Ari and √ Dime. Its speakers (around

30.000) live in South Omo between the √ Omo and √ Woito rift valleys, and practice a

mixture of √ pastoralism, √ agriculture, apiculture (s. honey) and √ hunting. Hamar uses

ten basic vowels falling into two corresponding categories. Category I vowels are open,

unraised and pronounced with constricted pharynx, category II vowels are close (except

for a), raised and pronounced with open pharynx. Hamar is a generic language in which

particular forms of nouns, verbs, and quality words are derived from a general, nonspecific

form. It is also a suffix language, modifiers taking the form of suffixes, and

S(ubject)O(bject)V(erb) order is typical for simple declarative sentences. The following

suffixes are attached to general form of nouns to produce particular forms: -a/-ta for

masc. sing. or particular/small, -no/-tono for fem. sing. or global/large, -na for particular

pl., -o for address sing., -nato for address pl., -mai for address intimate, -mo for

indicating state, condition, quality of. The general form of pronouns can be modified by

suffixes to form independent and dependent pronouns. The generic root of the verb is

active, suffixes are used alone or in combination to produce derived roots: -äd for

passive/reflexive, -s/-t for causative/initiative, -ïm for progressive. Verb stems indicating

aspect are derived from verb roots as follows: root alone for immediate aspect, -a for

perfect, -i for descriptive, -e for imperfect, -o for purposive. Relatives can be derived

from verb stems by adding noun suffixes. Verbal expressions combine verbal stems and

roots with, or without, pronouns. Verbal negation involves raised and falling tone on last

two vowels, e.g. känsáì (does not know) A small number of quality words may perform

as adjectives, adverbs, nouns or verbs. Ideophones form a large class of words which,

unlike the other word classes, do not take on suffixes, but can be varied through

reduplication and lengthening. Ideophones sum up states of affairs, mimic sounds, act as

vocatives or are used as attitude markers.

Sources: J. Lydall, 'Hamer' In: M.L. Bender (ed.) The Non-Semitic Languages of Ethiopia, Michigan

1976, 393-438; J. Lydall 'Gender, Number, and Size in Hamar' In: M. Bechhaus-Gerst and F. Serzisko

(eds.) Cushitic - Omotic. Papers from the International Symposium on Cushitic and Omotic Languages,

Cologne, January 6-7, 1986 Hamburg 1988, 77-90.

 
   

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